deocedchaelasneapp.ga Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted, while Calvinism and Lutheranism were prohibited. The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the delegations never met in a plenary session. Instead, various delegations arrived between and and left between and The largest number of diplomats were present between January and July Delegations had been sent by 16 European states, 66 Imperial States representing the interests of Imperial States, and 27 interest groups representing 38 groups.
The rulers of the Imperial States could henceforth choose their own official religions. Catholics and Protestants were redefined as equal before the law, and Calvinism was given legal recognition as an official religion. The Holy See was very displeased at the settlement, with Pope Innocent X calling it "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all time" in the bull Zelo Domus Dei. The treaties did not entirely end conflicts arising out of the Thirty Years' War.
Fighting continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in Nevertheless, the Peace of Westphalia did settle many outstanding European issues of the time. Scholars of international relations have identified the Peace of Westphalia as the origin of principles crucial to modern international relations , including the inviolability of borders and non-interference in the domestic affairs of sovereign states.
This system became known in the literature as Westphalian sovereignty. As of the start of , the Gregorian calendar was. Not to be confused with Alvise Contarini — , Venetian diplomat who negotiated the Peace of Westphalia. Alvise Contarini 24 October — 15 January was the th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on 26 August until his death seven and a half years later. He was the eighth and final member of the House of Contarini to serve as Doge of Venice with the first being Domenico I Contarini, who became Doge in His reign was largely peaceful, as the Republic of Venice was still recovering from the defeat to the Ottoman Empire in the —69 Cretan War.
However, in the last days of Contarini's reign, hostilities with the Ottoman Empire were rekindled once again, and Venice soon entered the Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War, better known as the Morean War — A former research fellow for the edition series Acta Pacis Wesphalicae, she has published works on French diplomacy at the Congress of Westphalia and is currently doing work on the Franco-Spanish War of the s. Tischer earned her M. It was one of the Three Bishoprics that were annexed by France in The Bishops of Metz had already ruled over a significant amount of territories within the former Kingdom of Lotharingia, which by the Treaty of Meerssen became a part of East Francia.
They had to struggle for their independence from the Dukes of Lorraine, acquired the lands of the Counts of Metz, but had to face the rise of their capital Metz to the status of an Imperial City in In the unrest of the Metz citizens forced the bishops to move their residence to Vic-sur-Seille. Metz was occupied by Henry's troops and annexed by the French crown, finally acknowledged by the Empire in the Peace of Westphalia. It permitted the Lutherans of Silesia to build three churches from wood, loam and straw outside the city walls, without steeples and church bells.
The construction time was limited to one year. Claude de Mesmes, comte d'Avaux — was a 17th-century French diplomat and public administrator.
In he guided the negotiations of the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf, which extended the truce between Poland and Sweden that had ended the Polish-Swedish war of — This truce was of French interest because it covered the Swedes' flank while fighting for France in Germany. In he negotiated a new alliance with Sweden in the Treaty of Hamburg.
He was plenipotentiary at the Peace of Westphalia and ended his career as Superintendent of Finances. It was disbanded in Hagenau became its capital while the Imperial city of Strasbourg, though venue of the league's diets, remained outside the alliance. The town of Seltz joined the league when it received immediate status in , but had to leave it after its mediatization to the Electorate of the Palatinate in The affiliation at first discontinued after Charles' death in , it was, however, re-established in the next year. The ten cities joined the Upper Rhenish Circle in In , Mulhouse pulled out of the alliance in order to associate with the Old Swiss Confederacy.
It was replaced in by the city of Landau in northern Alsace. Mulhouse remained an independent city and exclave of the Swiss Confederation until in it was annexed to the French First Republic. Landau together with the Palatinate was given to Bavaria after the Congress of Vienna. The Wittelsbach dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Bavaria was the younger branch of the family which also ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate.
The head of the elder branch was one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of , but Bavaria was excluded from the electoral dignity. Although the Peace of Westphalia would create a new electoral title for Frederick V's son, with the exception of a brief period during the War of the Spanish Succession, Maximilian's descendants would continue to hold the original electoral dignity until the extinction of his line in At that point the two lines were joined in personal union until the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
In , after the Peace of Pressburg, the then-elector, Maximilian Joseph, raised himself to the dignity of King of Bavaria, and the Holy Roman Empire was abolished the year after. The treaty forming the League was signed at Heilbronn in Germany on 23 April After the death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the majority of German states were desperate to achieve peace.
Die Friedenskirchen in Schweidnitz, Jauer und Glogau (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Karoline Harthun. Download it once and read it on your Kindle. Die Friedenskirchen in Schweidnitz, Jauer und Glogau (German Edition) eBook: Karoline Harthun: qojywyko.tk: Kindle Store.
Most significantly, the search for a peace that would privilege all of those who signed it ensured the continuance of the war. It was essential that France took the lead, and provide patronage to their German allies. Each of the circles was required to provide 2. France also agreed to increase the revenue that it would supply, as the death of Gustavus had resulted in France having a greater influence on the overall military situation. Peace between the Emperor and the majority of German states was achieved at the Peace of Prague.
This treaty was signed not only by eastern Protestant states, like Saxony and Brandenburg which were not parties to the Heillbronn League , but even by many Swedish allies in western Germany. Legally speaking, this treaty affirmed that German states could not enter in alliance treaties with other states.
Swedish influence in the Rhineland theatre evaporated, and in the following years military operations were conducted under French leadership. Imperial immediacy German: Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, and individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct "immediate", in the sense of "without an intermediary" authority of the Emperor, and later of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet Reichstag , the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council.
The granting of immediacy began in the Early Middle Ages, and for the immediate bishops, abbots and cities, then the main beneficiaries of that status, immediacy could be exacting and often meant being subjected to the fiscal, military and hospitality demands of their overlord, the Emperor. However, with the gradual exit of the Emperor from the centre stage from the midth century onwards, holders of imperial immediacy eventually found themselves vested with considerable rights and powers previously exercised by the emperor.
As confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia in , the possession of imperial immediacy came with a particular form of territorial authority known as territorial superiority Landeshoheit or superioritas territorialis in German and Latin documents of the time.
In today's terms, it would be understood as a limited form of sovereignty. Johann Schop ca. In Leopold Mozart commented on the difficulty of a trill in a work by Schop, probably composed before He worked in Hamburg. Migration from the Colonies. Italian Cuisine. Educational Journey, Grand Tour. Artist Journeys. Forced Ethnic Migration. Expulsion of the Muslims from the Balkans. Flucht und Vertreibung — Jewish Migration. Ashkenazi Jews in Early Modern Europe. Jakob Frank. East and South-East European Jews. Sephardische Juden. Revolution and Migration after Fernhandelskaufleute und Kulturtransfer BE.
Alpine tourism. This article focuses on the mobility of Lutheran communities in early modern Europe. The emphasis is on emigrations from the Habsburg territories during the time of re-catholicization in the late 16th century until the early 18th century. To shed light on the specific conditions and processes of the Lutheran confessional migration, these waves of migration will be considered in the context of the early modern migration movements in general, but also situated in the contemporary developments regarding confessional politics and piety.
Besides the migration processes themselves, this article looks at the possibilities of settlement and integration for Lutheran migrants; special attention will also be given to the cultural transfers that took place in the context of migration, as well as to the communication structures and the formation of particular immigrant traditions. The migrations of Lutherans in the early modern period seem to have made less of an impression on the European historical consciousness than, for instance, the emigrations of the Reformed Huguenots or the mixed-confessional emigrations from Europe to America.
Only the Salzburg Protestants have achieved a certain degree of prominence. At the same time, the so-called Great Salzburg Expulsion is a good example of the contribution of Lutherans to mythologizing religious flight and confessional migration. The political instrumentalization of this migration process, as well as fundraising activities, sermons , pamphlets, poems, songs, leaflets and pictures raised public awareness for the cause of the emigrants.
These initiatives, however, were rarely started by the emigrants themselves, but rather by the Protestant, mainly Lutheran, environment they came in contact with. In the wake of their journeys, the figure of the confessional refugee also spread throughout Central Europe's Protestant landscape. The treatment and instrumentalization of confessional migrations in politics and the media is an important factor in the mythologizing of confessional refugees as long-suffering individuals who set out for foreign lands with the "walking-staff of the exile" in hand, singing hymns and trusting in God.
Although the Salzburgers are in many ways an exceptional case, they nonetheless may be classified as belonging to a major emigrational event. The movements of Lutheran communities since the 16th century largely extended over longer periods of time and took place under different circumstances. Austrians , Bohemians , Moravians , Silesians , Hungarians and many other people from areas inside and outside of the Holy Roman Empire shaped the image of the Lutheran "exulants" exiles , which served as a point of reference for the Salzburger emigration.
It was some time before research on confessional migrations could free itself from religiously edifying mythmaking. The term "confessional migration" coined by Heinz Schilling born made an important contribution to clarify the social-historical aspects of the debate. However, this term mainly referred to Reformed, i.
Calvinist migrants. Even the so-called "Reformation of the Refugees" — which is now recognized in research as a separate, unique form of expression of the Reformation — is primarily regarded as a Reformed phenomenon. The reasons for this were shared linguistic, religious, economic and social characteristics and the often favourable conditions in the receiving countries.
As a result, they did not fill the exceptional position of a minority which could be regarded as particularly innovative in religious or economic respect. Therefore, the migration of Lutherans in the early modern period appears to be unsuited to be told as a story of success or failure. This is particularly relevant in regard to the cultural transfers that accompanied migration and settlement processes.
Undoubtedly, migrations were always associated with the immigration of peoples and the transmission of ideas and material goods, which could then be interpreted and re-contextualized in the new settlement sites. Such re-interpretations and adaptations are easier to locate, for instance, in the context of French Huguenot colonies in Brandenburg-Prussia than in the case of the many migrations from Habsburg lands to the neighbouring Lutheran territories of the empire. Here, emigrations were based on established contacts, and the areas of destination were neither socio-culturally nor linguistically distinct from their home countries.
Besides this, the migrants were often not able to settle in groups, but were spread out over certain areas. The migrants were, nonetheless, characterized and united by the self-designation "exulant" "exile". This term is effectively a Lutheran invention that has its own inter-confessional, geographic and historical transfer history. It is a derivation of the Roman legal term "exul", which originally meant an outcast. Some of these conservative Lutherans were ready to accept their dismissal if this was seen as the only way to uphold their profession of faith and abidance by the divine truth.
They accordingly either distanced themselves from intra-Lutheran positions or from secular authorities, whom they accused of exceeding their powers. Firstly, and above all, it was a state of mind and the self-attribution of the members of a church of true believers, whose destiny had been shaped by persecution. The goal was the recovery of the spatial or spiritual homeland — either on earth or in heaven. The notion of exile as a temporary intermediate state or a step in the lifelong pilgrimage or peregrinatio of a true Christian is also evident in the word form of "exulant", a term that became increasingly common from around the year It derives from the Latin present participle "exulans" and hence linguistically implies precisely this condition of temporariness.
The term "exulant" in the sense of a steadfast confessional refugee is indeed of Lutheran origin. Still, the term is also found, albeit less commonly, in connection with the Reformed confessional migrants, and even in the Catholic context. They moreover influenced, if not directed, the migrations themselves. The concept primarily expresses the point of view of those affected and especially their self-fashioning.
By contrast, the territorial authorities and religious institutions of the Catholic opposition frequently did not speak of exiles, but rebels who rejected feudal dependencies and governmental orders and could therefore be prosecuted criminally. In some cases, though, they also used the more neutral, imperial legal term "emigrants".
There is a mixture of voluntariness and coercion in confessional migrations — in religious, but also in political and legal, respects. From , the so-called Ius emigrandi provided the framework in the empire for dissenting subjects to leave a territory in a regulated manner. However, the Ius emigrandi 's origins lie in a Protestant concession to the Catholics at the Imperial Diet of It is therefore probably to be less understood as an early individual basic right to freedom of worship than as a provision for implementing the Ius reformandi. He writes:.
In reality, however, the situation was more complicated: for members of religious minorities emigration was only one of several ways to deal with the authorities' attempts to introduce confessional uniformity. A change of location depended on economic, social and political factors, and had to be considered carefully. Besides emigration, another way was conversion to the Catholic majority faith while often certain forms of Lutheran piety were secretly retained. As were the questions of whether and when a pastor should obey an expulsion order or whether he should leave his flock at all.
For the large emigrations of Lutherans in early modern Central Europe, these problems were of vital importance. Religiously legitimized forms of mobility were not new developments of the Reformation period. Antiquity and the Middle Ages offer numerous examples, from pilgrims and mendicant orders to the Jewish Diaspora and the Hussites of Bohemia. If one looks for Lutheran migrants or migrations, one finds ample evidence already in the early Reformation era, a time in which Lutheranism was still establishing itself and which is otherwise connected with the migrations of followers of more radical Reformation movements like the Anabaptists.
Larger Lutheran-dominated migration movements, however, are cum grano salis a phenomenon of the "long" 17th century, extending from the s until the s. It is very difficult to give precise numbers of those affected, because statistical records of the pre-modern era in no way measure up to our own current standards. Thus the exile lists or civic records, for instance, do not include people who were not present on a given date at a specific place or part of a certain social context.
Admission to citizenship remained economically or politically unrealistic for many migrants. It is therefore also impossible to quantify the numerous immigrants without citizenship, those who moved around nomadically or those who were just passing through. In addition, as many families were broken up as a result of the emigration, one cannot necessarily presume an average family size of five people as one usually does for the early modern period.
Accordingly, when statistics linger in the relevant literature — such as 11, inner-Austrian emigrants, 36, families of Bohemian exiles or 20, Salzburgers — they are always to be treated with some caution. The Lutheran migrations became a mass phenomenon in the context of the re-catholicization of Habsburg territories such as the Austrian hereditary lands, the lands of the Bohemian Crown, Upper Hungary and the Archbishopric of Salzburg , which was at times a Habsburg satellite state.
Almost always the clergy and the schoolmasters were the first to be expelled by mandate, because, to the state administration, they represented a particular danger as propagators of false teachings. Afterwards, the remaining subjects were ordered to convert — an order which, in light of recent research, more than a few people followed. However, the goal was to create a confessionally uniform class of subjects so as to have a stable, orderly and godly state. In practice, however, and depending on the region, there remained many loopholes for openly or secretly practicing Lutheranism, even under the conditions of harsh re-catholicization measures.
In some areas, only those were expelled who, from the administration's point of view, were truly recalcitrant; others decided to emigrate voluntarily in view of worsening religious, social and economic circumstances. When individuals fled from their conditions as subjects or circumvented emigration provisions, they were in direct defiance of the law and could be classified as rebels, whom the authorities sought to have extradited. Depending on region and local circumstances, the spectrum of resistance against the re-catholicization of the Habsburg territories extended from rebellions and rioting to flight or expulsion and to more or less voluntary and planned migrations.
After the death of her husband, she was suspected of a relationship with Abraham Bishop of Freising but was exonerated by the Bishop, who sang the mass at her burial . Regensburg, always the residence of the dukes of Bavaria, became an imperial free city in the 13th century. Terrible 0. However, with the gradual exit of the Emperor from the centre stage from the midth century onwards, holders of imperial immediacy eventually found themselves vested with considerable rights and powers previously exercised by the emperor. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus. The unassuming old houses, the small well-known Garrison Church and the summer residence Sans Souci , itself so modest, showed us that the Prussian kings obviously always knew their limitations.
In some cases, the emigrations were effectively return migrations of families who had recently resided in Upper Germany. Dramatic scenes took place especially in Inner Austria Styria , Carniola and Carinthia due to the forceful re-catholicization measures. In Upper Austria , which was already a migration area in the s and then became even more of one in the s, the confessional problem merged on several occasions with political and social uprisings. In Lower Austria it remained quiet until the s, when Lutherans there also left the country and emigrated to Protestant Southern Germany.
The emigrations continued on a smaller scale throughout most of the 17th century, although they were not always clearly connected to re-catholicization measures, but often more attributable to political and socio-economic causes. As in Bohemia, the proportion of the rural population among migrants from the hereditary lands rose after When choosing their destinations, the migrants were often able to rely on existing contacts. Host regions of the exiles from the hereditary lands were neighbouring Protestant territories such as the Lutheran County of Ortenburg in Bavaria , but chiefly also the Upper German imperial cities such as Regensburg , Ulm and the economically thriving Nuremberg.
As a result, economic relations and communications between Regensburg or Nuremberg and the hereditary lands intensified. Some immigrants were given citizenship, achieved positions in the city councils, married into established families and helped to cultivate the city's art and cultural scene, for example by establishing literary societies. Specialists such as goldsmiths, but also visual artists and authors including women authors such as Catharina Regina von Greiffenberg — from the hereditary lands made Nuremberg temporarily into an important centre of cultural transfers between the Austrian exiles and 17th-century Baroque culture.
The situation of the Bohemian exile was somewhat different, it involved German-speaking Lutherans and Czech-language Neo- Utraquists in addition to the Bohemian Brethren. For many members of the clergy, emigration to Saxony in fact meant a return to their native country.
They had originally left in for Bohemia after Rudolf II's — Letter of Majesty had granted Bohemia's and Silesia's Protestant estates the free exercise of religion. This was not least because Saxony was on the Habsburg side for an extended period of the Thirty Years' War. Officially, the Electorate of Saxony only welcomed Bohemian Lutherans, which caused many exiles to associate more closely with the Lutheran faith only after arriving at their places of exile Pirna , Zittau , Dresden , etc.
The Peace of Prague and, finally, the Treaty of Westphalia dashed any hopes of return and the restitution of property, which prompted more and more exiles to settle down permanently in their new northern and central German settlements. This led to an intensification of longer-term transfers between the immigrants and the host societies in a variety of areas.
For instance, in Upper Lusatia the exiles contributed to improving the craft of weaving, in the royal seat of Dresden they dominated wine selling and trade along the Elbe River.
Here, a Bohemian parish was established in which Czech traditions were strongly cultivated. However, in the 18th century it became increasingly difficult to find a Lutheran clergyman who had a command of the Czech language. The Christian Weise Library in Zittau to this day houses a large number of Czech-language volumes from the libraries of Bohemian exiles.
Only few so-called exile cities like for instance Johanngeorgenstadt in the Erzgebirge show evidence of a closed settlement of emigrants that was based on a privilege granted by a sovereign or landlord. Most of the other immigrants were spread throughout the localities along the border area. The emigration from the Bohemian lands continued with varying intensity and diverse regional characteristics until the 18th century, as is shown especially by the close border regions of Silesia and Upper Lusatia. Silesia was indeed itself a site of immigration as well as emigration or passage and was also at times affected by re-catholicization.
Due to its territorial complexity and uncertain imperial status as a Bohemian possession, which was fragmented internally into numerous dominions, the situation here differed greatly from region to region. In the turmoil of war and religious conflict, the Baroque literature of Silesia dealt with confessional restrictions, forced displacements and steadfastness of religious devotion.
Topoi were frequently adopted from the writings on confessional exile and emigration, which a number of Silesian Baroque poets had experienced first-hand. Located in the middle of a region threatened by re-catholicization, these churches became gathering places for Lutherans, and their services regularly attracted large segments of the population from officially Catholic dominions. There, so-called Border Churches were built or renovated in Polish, Brandenburg and Lusatian territories. Journeys like these to church services could, in the long term, lead to actual emigrations. Silesia, however, also served for a long time as a gateway to the Holy Roman Empire and as a relay of confessional exchange eastward.
In the late 17th century, during the so-called Mourning Decade a decade of almost complete, if temporary, abolishment of Lutheranism with military and prosecutorial measures , this had an impact on the exiled Protestant clergy from Upper Hungary Slovakia , who often only narrowly escaped the galleys and now entered the empire through Silesia. Some of them undertook important literary work there, reporting on the hardships of re-catholicization in Upper Hungary during the period of Emperor Leopold I —